Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, the authors examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, at age 4.5, and in first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as economics and sociology, they address 3 main questions. For children ages 10-14, maternal employment is a significant predictor for serious delinquency and the use of alcohol/drugs, but not school problems or psychological well-being. Maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes in the first three years of life: the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We find that the impact of In the last 10 years, there has been a flurry "Work hours, schedules, and insufficient sleep among mothers and their young children" Journal of Marriage and Family 76:5 (2014): 891–904. A few investigations find positive ef-1. Our findings indicated that maternal employment can be both beneficial and detrimental to children's educational development depending on the mother's number of working hours. Vandell and Ramanan (1992) studied 189 low-income children who were in the second grade in 1986 and found that maternal employment … We integrate information on these decisions with observations on child outcomes over a 13-year period from the NLSY. The employment rate for mothers with young children has increased dramatically over the past 25 years. maternal employment (or, in some cases, policies that extend maternal leave) either has no effect or a negligible effect on children’s cognitive development, whereas three studies conclude that maternal employment worsens children’s cognitive development. Critical Summary: Maternal Employment and Child Development There were multiple hypotheses used in determining the effectiveness of a mother’s companion with child in lieu or returning to work. We develop a theoretical model to show that maternal employment can affect child nutrition through changes in income, intrahousehold bargaining power, and time available for childcare. with the likelihood of development delays for children ages 0-4 or with scores on the W-J Letters-Word Identification or Applied Problems for children ages 2-4. I'm going to turn now from my focus on school-aged children to discuss the research on maternal employment during the child's infancy and toddler years. e. Other specific direct effects of maternal employment on children have not been demonstrated. A number of studies report negative impacts of maternal employment anytime in the first year on cognitive development, Maternal Employment and Child Development When a mother works outside the home it is considered maternal employment. We investigated the effects of early maternal employment on children's cognitive outcomes, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on 1,872 children who can be followed from birth to age 7 or 8. Critical Summary: Maternal Employment and Child Development There were multiple hypotheses used in determining the effectiveness of a mother’s companion with child in lieu or returning to work. ing child development through the specification and estimation of a behavioral model of household migration and maternal employment decisions. For example, in assessing the consequences for child development of imposing more stringent work requirements on welfare participants or of increasing tax credits aimed at encouraging mothers to enter the labor force, it is important to not only consider the direct negative effects of associated increases in maternal employment, but also to take into account possible changes in … Maternal employment during a child’s first year, especially during the first months, might be detrimental to a child’s cognitive development. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children’s time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. 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