Pompeii is situated in the region of Campania, to the south of Rome. Please read the disclaimer Magma produced from the melting African plate creates the large, violently explosive volcanoes of the Italian Peninsula. Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program Website. Plinian eruptions (huge explosions that create columns of gas, ash and rock which can rise dozens of kilometers into the atmosphere) have a much greater reach, and have destroyed entire ancient cities near Vesuvius with huge ashfalls and pyroclastic flows. Located on Italy's west coast, it overlooks the Bay and City of Naples and sits in the crater of the ancient Somma volcano. Ash, mud and rocks from this eruption buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Mount Vesuvius has experienced eight major eruptions in the last 17,000 years. Greek settlers made the town part of the Hellenistic sphere in the 8th century B.C. An independently-minded town, Pompeii fell under the influence of Rome in the 2nd century B.C. Andesite lava creates explosive eruptions on a variety of scales, which makes Vesuvius an especially dangerous and unpredictable volcano. The Campanian region not only had a location suited to trade but also had the fortune of a temperate climate and extremely fertile soils ideally suited to vineyards and olive groves. Please email us if you feel a correction is required to the Rome information provided. The bay of Naples has always acted as a fulcrum for the region and provided ideal harbours for international trade. Map showing the location of Mount Vesuvius on the west coast of Italy. The 79 AD eruption is one of the most well-known ancient eruptions in the world, and may have killed more than 16,000 people. Her concentration is in volcanology, and she is currently researching lava dome collapses and pyroclastic flows. "Ancient Rome" was written by Giovanni Milani-Santarpia for www.mariamilani.com - Ancient Rome History Rome apartments Vesuvius is currently quiet, with only minor seismic (earthquake) activity and outgassing from fumaroles in its summit crater, but more violent activity could resume in the future. Various forms of detritus had levelled the ledge out to a degree although on the whole there was only one relatively flat area on which the Forum was eventually built. Pompeii’s position made it an obvious settlement for the Italic peoples of the Campanian region: the Oscans & Samnites, cousins of the Latins, founders of Rome to the north. There are similarities and differences with the geography of Ancient Rome: Rome was essentially built on and around hills in a marshy area at the mouth of the river Tiber, the geography of Pompeii on the other hand was dominated by the mountain to the north-west and its immediate view over the sea. A panorama of the Gulf of Naples, Italy, showing the high population density and commerce. designed by VSdesign Copyright © Maria Milani 2017, History and timeline of Pompeii’s development. Mt. The circumstances of its destruction preserved Pompeii’s remains as a unique document of Greco-Roman life. Southern Methodist University CUL Digital Collections, Plaster casts: Victims of the 79 A.D. eruption, The 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius is why volcanologists use "Plinian" to describe large volcanic eruption clouds. Starting in 1631, Vesuvius entered a period of steady volcanic activity, including lava flows and eruptions of ash and mud. Mount Vesuvius has experienced eight major eruptions in the last 17,000 years. Most rocks erupted from Vesuvius are andesite, an intermediate volcanic rock (about 53-63% silica). The combination of warming climate and foreign military campaigns enabled new foreign plants and crops to be acclimatised, grown and traded. These damaged or destroyed many towns around the volcano, and sometimes killed people; the eruption of 1906 had more than 100 casualties. The city saw major construction projects with new public buildings that included the amphitheatre, aqueduct, baths and temples complexes. Learn more about Pompeii, including its history and excavations. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area was buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Registered Address: HeritageDaily, 41 Belsize Road, Luton, Bedfordshire, England. Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae, Oplontis and Boscoreale were lost to the world in late August AD79 to lie hidden for almost 1800 years, a time capsule of Roman life in the first century AD. Though the volcano's last eruption was in 1944, it still represents a great danger to the cities that surround it, especially the busy metropolis of Naples. This city would later be absorbed into the Etruscan League of cities and new public buildings such as a primitive forum or simple market square was built, as well as the temple of Apollo. These northern trade routes were likely learned from the Etruscans. The most recent eruption was in 1944 during World War II. Pompeii’s geography in terms of position, local climate and terrain was the foundation of it’s development in every sense. We identified the need for a central resource offering the latest archaeological news, journals, articles and press releases. Simplified plate tectonics cross-section showing how Mount Vesuvius is located above a subduction zone formed where the African plate descends beneath Italy.
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